Introduction: Ureteroscopy (URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) are common procedures performed to treat kidney stones. Despite advances in technology/technique, serious infectious complications can occur. To better understand the preoperative antibiotic administration patterns and adherence to guidelines from the American Urological Association (AUA) and the European Association of Urology (EAU), members of the Endourological Society were sent a clinical vignette-based survey to assess the antibiotic use in a variety of pre-URS and pre-PCNL scenarios.
Methods: Endourological Society members were e-mailed a survey that queried antibiotic therapy duration before uncomplicated URS and PCNL with negative and asymptomatic positive preoperative urine cultures (PUCs). For negative PUC questions, selecting more perioperative antibiotics was considered a "prolonged" course as it extends past the maximum of 24-hour perioperative prophylaxis recommended by both the AUA and EAU.
Results: The response rate was 16.3% for a total of 326 responders. Twenty-one percent to 39% of respondents reported giving prolonged courses of preoperative antibiotics before a URS or PCNL with a negative PUC (p < 0.0001). When presented with a negative PUC, more prolonged antibiotic courses were reported with the following hierarchy: PCNL for 2 cm intrarenal stones (39%) > URS for 12 mm renal pelvis stone (28%) > URS for 7 mm distal ureteral stones (21%) (p < 0.0001). In both negative and positive PUC questions, differences were noted in preoperative antibiotic prescribing patterns among site of practice (United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, South America, and Others), type of practice (academic vs all others), years in practice (<10 or ≥10 years), and surgical volume (URS and PCNL >100 or ≤100 annual cases).
Conclusions: Adherence to guidelines on antibiotic administration before PCNL and URS with a negative PUC varies by scenario and provider. In 21% to 39% of negative PUC cases, reported antibiotic use before a URS or PCNL is not consistent with recommendations from the AUA and EAU. Before a positive PUC URS or PCNL, nearly all surveyed provide preoperative antibiotics; however, the regimen length is variable.
Keywords: antibiotics; percutaneous nephrolithotomy; ureteroscopy; urolithiasis.