A GAL family of upstream activating sequences in yeast: roles in both induction and repression of transcription

EMBO J. 1986 Mar;5(3):603-8.


Binding sites for the GAL4-positive regulatory protein have been identified upstream of six galactose-inducible genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the basis of (i) protection in DNAse I footprints, (ii) loss of protection when excess GAL4-binding oligonucleotide is added and (iii) homology with a 23-bp dyad-symmetric consensus sequence. Many of the binding sites have been shown to function as upstream activating sequences. The number of binding sites upstream of the various genes ranges from one to four, but a feature is conserved: in cases of multiple sites there is a pair with highest binding affinity located at dyad--dyad distances of 82--87 bp. We suggest that a pair of sites facilitates repression by the GAL80-negative regulatory protein, on the basis of (i) a correlation of a pair of sites (or only one) with full (or only partial) repression and (ii) the introduction of a second site abolishing transcription occurring with one.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • DNA Restriction Enzymes
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics*
  • Galactose / metabolism
  • Genes*
  • Genes, Fungal*
  • Genes, Regulator
  • Plasmids
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*
  • Transcription, Genetic*


  • Fungal Proteins
  • DNA Restriction Enzymes
  • Galactose