Background: Stilbene cleaving oxygenases (SCOs), also known as lignostilbene-α,β-dioxygenases (LSDs) mediate the oxidative cleavage of the olefinic double bonds of lignin-derived intermediate phenolic stilbenes, yielding small modified benzaldehyde compounds. SCOs represent one branch of the larger carotenoid cleavage oxygenases family. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of an SCO-like enzyme from the soil-born, bio-control agent Pseudomonas brassicacearum.
Methods: In vitro and in vivo assays relying on visual inspection, spectrophotometric quantification, as well as liquid-chormatographic and mass spectrometric characterization were applied for functional evaluation of the enzyme. X-ray crystallographic analyses and in silico modeling were applied for structural investigations.
Results: In vitro assays demonstrated preferential cleavage of resveratrol, while in vivo analyses detected putative cleavage of the straight chain carotenoid, lycopene. A high-resolution structure containing the seven-bladed β-propeller fold and conserved 4-His-Fe unit at the catalytic site, was obtained. Comparative structural alignments, as well as in silico modelling and docking, highlight potential molecular factors contributing to both the primary in vitro activity against resveratrol, as well as the putative subsidiary activities against carotenoids in vivo, for future validation.
Conclusions: The findings reported here provide validation of the SCO structure, and highlight enigmatic points with respect to the potential effect of the enzyme's molecular environment on substrate specificities for future investigation.
Keywords: Carotenoid; Crystal structure; In silico modeling; Lignostilbene cleaving oxygenase; Resveratrol.