Guidelines for the Evaluation and Treatment of Pneumonia

Prim Care. 2018 Sep;45(3):485-503. doi: 10.1016/j.pop.2018.04.001.


Pneumonia is a common cause of respiratory infection, accounting for more than 800,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Presenting symptoms of pneumonia are typically cough, pleuritic chest pain, fever, fatigue, and loss of appetite. Children and the elderly have different presenting features of pneumonia, which include headache, nausea, abdominal pain, and absence of one or more of the prototypical symptoms. Knowledge of local bacterial pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility and resistance profiles is the key for effective pharmacologic selection and treatment of pneumonia.

Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Community-acquired; Microbial pathogens; Pediatric; Pneumonia; Ventilator-associated.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial / diagnosis*
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial / drug therapy
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial / prevention & control
  • Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated / diagnosis
  • Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated / drug therapy
  • Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated / prevention & control
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic*
  • Travel


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents