Although the impact of dietary patterns on human serum metabolites has been examined, the fasting effect on the metabolic profile has not yet been considered. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to investigate the influence of fasting regarding the association between dietary patterns, reflected by macro- and micronutrient intake, and human serum metabolites in a population-based cohort. A total 1197 non-diabetic German adults aged 45 to 83 years, who participated in baseline of the CARLA study 2002-2006 and had metabolite quantification were selected for this study. Macro- and micronutrient intakes were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Concentrations of 134 serum metabolites were measured by targeted metabolomics AbsoluteIDQ p150 Kit. The association of dietary patterns with serum metabolites was calculated by means of linear regression and the influence of the fasting status was considered by including interaction terms with each macro- and micronutrient. Higher self-reported intake of alcohol and lower self-reported intake of organic acids were associated with higher concentrations of acylcarnitines and phosphatidylcholines. Mainly the associations between dietary patterns and acylcarnitines and hexose were altered after including interaction terms, suggesting effect modification by fasting status. No effect from fasting time was seen for amino acids and saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines.