Objectives: People living with HIV have increased Human Papillomavirus (HPV) related lesions and malignancies. We describe HPV DNA recovered from the cervix and anal canal, explore the effect of vaccination on HPV detection, and examine the durability of vaccine titers in women living with HIV-1 who were vaccinated with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine.
Methods: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5240 was a prospective study of the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine in 315 HIV-1 infected women in three CD4 strata (A: >350, B; 201-350, C: ≤200 cells/mm3). Vaccine was administered at entry, week 8 and week 24. Cervical and anal HPV DNA specimens were collected at baseline, weeks 28 and 52; serum for antibody testing was obtained at baseline, weeks 28 and 72.
Results: Vaccine antibody titers decreased across all four HPV types at week 72 compared to week 28. Lower proportions of sustained seropositivity were observed in women with lower CD4 counts for all four vaccine types, with the lowest titers for HPV 18. Despite the decrease, the geometric mean titer levels were above the seroconversion cut-off levels for all types except HPV 18 in the lowest CD4 stratum. Of the 174 participants who had a negative baseline HPV 16 antibody and developed antibody response at week 28, 95%, 88%, and 86% retained seropositivity at week 72 in strata A, B, and C respectively. Lower antibody retention was observed in women with CD4 < 200 compared to CD4 > 350 (p = 0.016). Anal HPV detection was more prevalent compared to cervical detection at all visits. Among high risk types, type 52, 31, 16, 18 and 51 were the most common in the cervical compartment, while types 16, 35, 18, and 51 were the most prevalent in the anal canal at baseline (listed in the order of prevalence). Later detection of HPV not present at baseline was uncommon in either compartment. Serial recovery of HPV over time was more commonly observed in the anal canal.
Conclusion: The qHPV vaccine elicits durable titer response above the seroconversion cut-off levels in HIV-infected women. However, the titer levels were substantially lower by Week 72, most noticeably in type 18. HPV DNA was detected more frequently in the anal canal. Detection of non-vaccine high risk HPV suggests a role for the nonavalent vaccine.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00604175.
Keywords: Anogenital; HIV; HPV; Immunogenicity; Quadrivalent HPV vaccine; Women.
Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.