Two macamide extracts relieve physical fatigue by attenuating muscle damage in mice

J Sci Food Agric. 2019 Feb;99(3):1405-1412. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.9318. Epub 2018 Oct 8.


Background: Macamides, the main active components contained in maca, have attracted increasing attention due to their various bioactivities. In this study, crude macamide extract (CME) and purified macamide extract (PME) were prepared by enzyme-assisted extraction and macroporous resin separation, and the anti-fatigue effects of CME and PME were evaluated in a forced swimming model.

Results: The composition analysis results revealed that both CME and PME mainly contain eight kinds of macamide. Based on the results of a weight-loaded forced swimming test, compared with a control group, CME and and PME groups could prolong exhaustive swimming time, increase levels of liver glycogen (LG) and muscle glycogen (MG), accelerate fatty acid oxidation in serum to provide energy, eliminate the accumulation of blood lactic acid (BLA) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and decrease the serum biomarkers for muscle damage, such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK). Histological analysis also indicated that CME and PME attenuated damage to skeletal muscle and the myocardium in mice during exercise.

Conclusion: Two macamide extracts have a beneficial effect on relieving physical fatigue by attenuating the damage of skeletal muscle and myocardium during exercise, and a better effect was observed in the PME group. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

Keywords: anti-fatigue; histological analysis; macamide extract; muscle damage.

MeSH terms

  • Amides / administration & dosage*
  • Amides / chemistry
  • Amides / isolation & purification
  • Animals
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Creatine Kinase / metabolism
  • Fatigue / drug therapy*
  • Fatigue / metabolism
  • Fatigue / physiopathology
  • Glycogen / metabolism
  • Humans
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / metabolism
  • Lepidium / chemistry*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Muscle Fatigue / drug effects*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / drug effects
  • Muscle, Skeletal / enzymology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage*
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification
  • Swimming


  • Amides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Glycogen
  • L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
  • Creatine Kinase