Aims: To evaluate gender differences in diabetes self-care components including glycemic, blood pressure and lipid control, utilization of diabetes technologies and acute diabetes complications in adults with type 1 diabetes.
Methods: A total of 9,481 participants >18 years were included in the analysis, 53% were female. Variables of interest included glycemic control measured by HbA1c, systolic/diastolic blood pressures, presence of dyslipidemia, insulin delivery modality, and rates of acute complications.
Results: Glycemic control was similar in women and men (mean HbA1c in both groups: 8.1% ± 1.6% (64 ± 16 mmol/mol), (p = 0.54). More women used insulin pump therapy (66% vs. 59%, p < 0.001) but use of sensor technology was similar (p < = 0.42). Women had higher rates of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (5% vs. 3%, p < 0.001) and eating disorders (1.7% vs. 0.1%, p < 0.001). Severe hypoglycemia rates were not different between men and women (p = 0.42). Smoking (6% vs 4%, p < 0.001), systolic (125 ± 14.2 vs. 121 ± 14.4, p < 0.001) and diastolic blood pressure (73.3 ± 9.5 vs. 72.2 ± 9.3, p < 0.001) and rate of dyslipidemia (28% vs. 23%, p < 0.001) were higher in men.
Conclusion: While glycemic control in type 1 diabetes was similar regardless of gender, rates of DKA and eating disorders were higher in women while rates of smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia were higher in men.
Keywords: Cardiovascular risk factors; Diabetes self-management; Eating disorder; Gender; Type 1 diabetes (T1D).
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