Two siblings with PRKDC defect who presented with cutaneous granulomas and review of the literature

Clin Immunol. 2018 Dec:197:1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2018.08.002. Epub 2018 Aug 16.


V(D)J recombination, during which recognition and repair of broken DNA chains are accomplished by non-homologous end joining pathway, is a critical process in B and T cell development.Null mutations of each enzyme or protein of this pathway result in T- B- NK+ severe combined immunodeficiency whereas hypomorphic mutations result in atypical(leaky)severe combined immunodeficiency forms. We present two siblings with PRKDC (Protein Kinase, DNA-Activated, Catalytic Polypeptide) mutation who presented with granulomatous skin lesions and recurrent lung infections. Primary immune deficiencies may initially present with skin findings. Disruption in central and peripheral B-cell tolerance and impaired intrathymic T-cell maturation,a central player in T-cell tolerance, have been identified as the mechanism of autoimmunity and granuloma seen in patients. The variation in clinical phenotypes of patients with PRKDC mutation suggests that additional factors such as modifying genes, epigenetic and environmental factors may affect the severity and clinical phenotype of the disease. Functional studies during the follow-up and evaluation before and after hematopoeitic stem cell transplantation will hopefully increase our knowledge about the autoimmune and inflammatory process of the disease spectrum.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Child, Preschool
  • DNA-Activated Protein Kinase / genetics*
  • Female
  • Granuloma / genetics*
  • Granuloma / immunology
  • Granuloma / pathology
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
  • Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell / genetics*
  • Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell / immunology
  • Histiocytosis, Non-Langerhans-Cell / pathology
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous / therapeutic use
  • Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial / genetics
  • Pneumonia, Bacterial / immunology
  • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency / genetics*
  • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency / immunology
  • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency / pathology
  • Severe Combined Immunodeficiency / therapy
  • Siblings
  • Skin Diseases / genetics*
  • Skin Diseases / immunology
  • Skin Diseases / pathology


  • Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
  • Immunologic Factors
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • DNA-Activated Protein Kinase
  • PRKDC protein, human