Gamma oscillations (∼25-100 Hz) are believed to play a role in cognition. Accordingly, aberrant gamma oscillations have been observed in several cognitive disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and Fragile X syndrome. Here, we review how recent results showing abnormal gamma rhythms in Alzheimer's disease and Fragile X syndrome help reveal links between cellular disturbances and cognitive impairments. We also discuss how gamma results from rodent models of Alzheimer's disease and Fragile X syndrome may provide insights about unique functions of distinct slow (∼25-50 Hz) and fast gamma (∼55-100 Hz) subtypes. Finally, we consider studies employing brain stimulation paradigms in Alzheimer's disease and discuss how such studies may reveal causal relationships between gamma impairments and memory disturbances.
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