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Randomized Controlled Trial
, 57, 56-66

Reductions in Food Cravings Are Similar With Low-Fat Weight Loss Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate in Overweight and Obese Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

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Randomized Controlled Trial

Reductions in Food Cravings Are Similar With Low-Fat Weight Loss Diets Differing in Protein and Carbohydrate in Overweight and Obese Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Nerylee A Watson et al. Nutr Res.

Abstract

Food cravings are common in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Higher-protein diets are effective in improving satiety but their effect on cravings is unclear. It was hypothesized that a high protein (HP) diet would provide greater reductions in cravings than an isocaloric higher-carbohydrate diet (HC). In a randomized controlled trial, 61 adults (54% males) with T2D (means ± SD: BMI 34.3 ± 5.1 kg/m2; aged 55 ± 8 years) consumed either a HP diet (mean across study: 29% protein, 34% carbohydrate, 31% fat) or an isocaloric HC diet (21%:48%:24%) for 12-weeks each of weight loss (WL) and weight maintenance (WM). The Food Craving Inventory (FCI), measuring types of foods craved and the General Food Craving Questionnaires measuring traits (G-FCQ-T) and states (G-FCQ-S) were assessed at Weeks 0, 12 and 24. Weight changes were similar between groups (means ± SEM: WL: -7.8 ± 0.6 kg, WM: -0.6 ± 0.4 kg). No group effects or group x time interactions were found for any outcome (P ≥ .07). Independent of group, all food cravings (except carbohydrates) and G-FCQ-T subscales decreased over the 24-week study (P ≤ .04) with sweets and fast food cravings, loss of control and emotional cravings reducing following WL (P ≤ .03). Obsessive preoccupation with food decreased following both phases (WL: P = .03; WM: P = .001). Weight was associated with several FCI subscales (r ≥ 0.24, P ≤ .04). In conclusion, both the HP and HC diets provided significant reductions in food cravings after similar weight losses which were maintained when weight was stabilized.

Keywords: Diet; Food Cravings; Type 2 Diabetes; Weight Loss; Weight Maintenance.

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