Masculinizing Genital Gender Confirmation Surgery

Sex Med Rev. 2019 Jan;7(1):141-155. doi: 10.1016/j.sxmr.2018.06.004. Epub 2018 Aug 16.


Introduction: This article is the third in a 3-part series focused on the comprehensive treatment of gender dysphoria. Multidisciplinary gender dysphoria care may involve a combination of counseling, social gender transition, hormone therapy, and gender confirmation surgery (GCS) to maximize physical characteristics congruent with a patient's gender identity. Nonoperative management of gender dysphoria was covered in part 1. The focus of part 2 was feminizing GCS. In part 3, surgical considerations for masculinizing GCS are summarized, including a review of different phalloplasty techniques. This installment also includes information about adjunctive procedures, therapies, and products used by transgender men and women to express their gender identity.

Aim: To provide an overview of both genital and nongenital masculinizing gender confirmation procedures. To review phalloplasty techniques, preoperative considerations, complications, and outcomes. To summarize ancillary services and procedures available to transgender patients to facilitate their gender presentation.

Methods: A review of relevant literature through May 2017 was performed via PubMed.

Main outcome measures: To summarize ancillary products and services used by transgender patients and to review surgical considerations for masculinizing genitoplasty.

Results: A variety of nonsurgical ancillary services exist for transgender patients to aid their transition. A variety of phalloplasty procedures have been developed for transgender men who seek genital GCS. Most surgeons prefer radial forearm phalloplasty, including the authors whose surgical technique is described. Each phalloplasty approach is associated with its own benefits, drawbacks, and complications.

Conclusion: A variety of ancillary services and procedures that help transgender men and women communicate their gender identity in society is available and is an important adjunct to medical or surgical treatment of gender dysphoria. Pre-operative, intra-operative, and post-operative considerations of masculinizing genital gender confirmation procedures were reviewed. Hadj-Moussa M, Agarwal S, Ohl DA, et al. Masculinizing Genital Gender Confirmation Surgery. Sex Med Rev 2019;7:141-155.

Keywords: Gender Confirmation Surgery; Gender Dysphoria; Gender Reassignment; Metoidioplasty; Phalloplasty; Transgender.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Counseling
  • Female
  • Gender Dysphoria / psychology
  • Gender Dysphoria / surgery*
  • Gender Identity
  • Genitalia, Female / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Sex Reassignment Surgery* / methods
  • Transgender Persons*
  • Virilism* / psychology