Improvements during 1978 to 2006 in the 5-year survival rate of adolescents and young adults (AYAs, age 15-39) and children with cancers common to both age groups were evaluated for 1978 to 2006 in Europe and the USA. AYAs had absolute survival increases of 25% and 15% in Europe and the USA, respectively, but in both cases, AYA 5-year survival was, as of 2006, 4% lower than those in children. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) explained most of the survival difference between AYAs and children on both the continents. In the USA, 20- to 39-year-olds with ALL have had less survival improvement than those in Europe.
Keywords: acute lymphoblastic leukemia; adolescents and young adults; cancer; children; survival; time trends.
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