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Optimal Deployment of FiWi Networks Using Heuristic Method for Integration Microgrids With Smart Metering

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Optimal Deployment of FiWi Networks Using Heuristic Method for Integration Microgrids With Smart Metering

Esteban Inga et al. Sensors (Basel).

Abstract

The unpredictable increase in electrical demand affects the quality of the energy throughout the network. A solution to the problem is the increase of distributed generation units, which burn fossil fuels. While this is an immediate solution to the problem, the ecosystem is affected by the emission of CO₂. A promising solution is the integration of Distributed Renewable Energy Sources (DRES) with the conventional electrical system, thus introducing the concept of Smart Microgrids (SMG). These SMGs require a safe, reliable and technically planned two-way communication system. This paper presents a heuristic based on planning capable of providing a bidirectional communication that is near optimal. The model follows the structure of a hybrid Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) network with the purpose of obtaining information of electrical parameters that help us to manage the use of energy by integrating conventional electrical system with SMG. The optimization model is based on clustering techniques, through the construction of balanced conglomerates. The method is used for the development of the clusters along with the Nearest-Neighbor Spanning Tree algorithm (N-NST). Additionally, the Optimal Delay Balancing (ODB) model will be used to minimize the end to end delay of each grouping. In addition, the heuristic observes real design parameters such as: capacity and coverage. Using the Dijkstra algorithm, the routes are built following the shortest path. Therefore, this paper presents a heuristic able to plan the deployment of Smart Meters (SMs) through a tree-like hierarchical topology for the integration of SMG at the lowest cost.

Keywords: IoT; heuristic; microgrid; optimization; sensor networks; smart metering.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
FiWi network architecture for the efficient integration of smart meters. Source: the authors.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Near optimal deployment of SMs using Fiber-Wireless (FiWi) network. Source: the authors.
Figure 3
Figure 3
WiFi neighbor adjacency matrix n = 512. (a) and (b) preliminary deployment, (a) route map and (b) representation of the adjacency matrix; (c) and (d) correspond to the scenario, minimizing the delays. Source: the authors.
Figure 4
Figure 4
End to end delay generated by each population increase by varying the capacity of each cluster with traffic 0.1 package/s, L = 200 bits. Source: the authors.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Delay in different scenarios. (a) Delay vs increase of users; (b) Delay vs increase packet rate. Source: the authors.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Average links crossed by a data packet L = 800-bit, Lambda = 0.1 package/s. Source: the authors.

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