A Study to Correlate Various Facial Landmarks With Intercanine Distance

Indian J Dent Res. Jul-Aug 2018;29(4):440-444. doi: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_80_17.


Context: Ideal interaction of dental and facial beauty proportions highly influences a harmonious facial appearance. Racial anatomical variations have been significantly noted and using these norms during prosthodontic rehabilitation will be greatly helpful in successful treatment outcome.

Aim: The present study aims to correlate various facial landmarks (interpupillary distance [IPD], intercanthal width, bizygomatic width [BZW], and interalar width) with intercanine distance (ICaD) in Indian young adults to determine the mesiodistal width of the maxillary anterior teeth in edentulous patients.

Setting and design: This is an observational cross-sectional study.

Materials and methods: This study was conducted in 500 individuals ranging in age from 18 to 28 years. IPD, intercanthal width, BZW, and interalar width were measured with a digital caliper (accuracy - 0.01 mm). A "T-" shaped flat metal plate called "canine tip marker" was made to mark the tips of the maxillary canines, which were further measured with the digital caliper. The data were summarized in table form and were statistically analyzed.

Statistical analysis used: Student's t-test and ANOVA test were used.

Results: A significant correlation (P < 0.001) was found between these landmarks with ICaD, in which interalar width shows highest degree of correlation (r = 0.639). ANOVA test showed that maximum number of individuals had < 5% variability range between actual values and calculated values of ICaD for all extraoral facial landmarks except intercanthal width.

Conclusion: Combination of various facial and oral factors should be considered while selecting artificial teeth. Regression equations obtained can be well used during teeth selection to achieve a significant result.

Keywords: Bizygomatic width; interalar width; intercanine distance; intercanthal width; interpupillary distance.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Cephalometry
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Cuspid / anatomy & histology*
  • Face / anatomy & histology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Jaw, Edentulous
  • Male
  • Maxilla
  • Odontometry
  • Prosthodontics
  • Tooth, Artificial
  • Young Adult