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. 2018 Aug 20;11(8):1482.
doi: 10.3390/ma11081482.

In-Situ High Resolution Dynamic X-ray Microtomographic Imaging of Olive Oil Removal in Kitchen Sponges by Squeezing and Rinsing

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Free PMC article

In-Situ High Resolution Dynamic X-ray Microtomographic Imaging of Olive Oil Removal in Kitchen Sponges by Squeezing and Rinsing

Abhishek Shastry et al. Materials (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Recent advances in high resolution X-ray tomography (μCT) technology have enabled in-situ dynamic μCT imaging (4D-μCT) of time-dependent processes inside 3D structures, non-destructively and non-invasively. This paper illustrates the application of 4D-μCT for visualizing the removal of fatty liquids from kitchen sponges made of polyurethane after rinsing (absorption), squeezing (desorption) and cleaning (adding detergents). For the first time, time-dependent imaging of this type of system was established with sufficiently large contrast gradient between water (with/without detergent) and olive oil (model fat) by the application of suitable fat-sensitive X-ray contrast agents. Thus, contrasted olive oil filled sponges were rinsed and squeezed in a unique laboratory loading device with a fluid flow channel designed to fit inside a rotating gantry-based X-ray μCT system. Results suggest the use of brominated vegetable oil as a preferred contrast agent over magnetite powder for enhancing the attenuation coefficient of olive oil in a multi fluid filled kitchen sponge. The contrast agent (brominated vegetable oil) and olive oil were mixed and subsequently added on to the sponge. There was no disintegration seen in the mixture of contrast agent and olive oil during the cleaning process by detergents. The application of contrast agents also helped in accurately tracking the movement and volume changes of soils in compressed open cell structures. With the in house-built cleaning device, it was quantified that almost 99% of cleaning was possible for contrasted olive oil (brominated vegetable oil with olive oil) dispersed in the sponge. This novel approach allowed for realistic mimicking of the cleaning process and provided closer evaluation of the effectiveness of cleaning by detergents to minimize bacterial growth.

Keywords: X-ray μCT; flow cell; in-situ experiments.

Conflict of interest statement

This work presents a methodology to investigate deep-down cleaning using in-situ experiments. The results of this work do not reflect any value measurement of any P&G product and as such do not pose a conflict of interest. Any dishwashing liquid can be used for this purpose.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
(a) 2D front view of CAD model of the sample holder (not to scale), (b) photo of the sample holder with sponge.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Picture and schematic drawing of the flow cell (Front view) with attached flow channels.
Figure 3
Figure 3
(a) Cross sectional image indicating the microstructure of the dry sponge. (c) Cross sectional image of sponge with water and olive oil without application of contrast agent. (b,d) Zoomed images of the result shown in (a,c), depicting the microstructure of the sponge and water and non-contrasted olive oil in the sponge, respectively. The colormap illustrates the reconstructed attenuation coefficient of different materials.
Figure 4
Figure 4
3D rendering of sponge with magnetite powder dispersed olive oil (a) before cleaning, (b) intermediate Process 3 (Section 2.7) and (c) after two stages of cleaning. Pseudo coloration is performed based on the segmentation: blue represents magnetite powder dispersed olive oil, pale blue represents water, red represents detergent and yellow colour represents the sponge. The residue was present even after 2 stages of cleaning for the magnetite powder dispersed olive oil sponge.
Figure 5
Figure 5
3D rendering of sponge with brominated vegetable oil dispersed olive oil (a) before cleaning, (b) intermediate Process 3 (Section 2.7) and (c) after two stages of cleaning. Pseudo coloration is performed based on the segmentation: blue represents brominated vegetable oil with olive oil, pale blue represents water, red represents detergent and yellow colour represents the sponge. There were no traces of contrasted olive oil in the cleaned sponge.

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