Overexpression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and functionally-related genes, D-DT, CD74, CD44, CXCR2 and CXCR4, in glioblastoma

Oncol Lett. 2018 Sep;16(3):2881-2886. doi: 10.3892/ol.2018.8990. Epub 2018 Jun 19.


The macrophage migration inhibition factor (MIF) is a cytokine with multiple biological functions, including the cancer-associated processes, cell cycle deregulation, angiogenesis and metastatization. The present study investigated the expression of MIF and its functionally associated genes (D-DT, CD74, CD44, CXCR2 and CXCR4) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas databank, through the cBioportal web-based utility (cbioportal.org/). A significant increase was observed in the majority of these genes in GBM samples compared with lower grade gliomas, however no significant correlation among the selected genes and the overall survival of the patients was identified. In contrast, the expression of MIF exhibited a trend toward an increase in overall survival and a significant increase of MIF expression was observed in samples of patients who underwent neoadjuvant treatment. In conclusion these data indicate that MIF and its receptors are involved in GBM progression and maintenance. Deciphering the precise biological significance in GBM would favor the adoption of tailored approaches to modulate the function of MIF and its associated genes for the treatment of the disease.

Keywords: D-dopachrome tautomerase; cluster of differentiation 74; glioblastoma; glioma; macrophage migration inhibitory factor.