GW0742 activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ to reduce free radicals and alleviate cardiac hypertrophy induced by hyperglycemia in cultured H9c2 cells

J Cell Biochem. 2018 Nov;119(11):9532-9542. doi: 10.1002/jcb.27270. Epub 2018 Aug 20.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ), the predominant PPAR subtype in the heart, is known to regulate cardiac function. PPARδ activation may inhibit cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cells while the potential mechanism has not been elucidated. Then, H9c2 cells incubated with high glucose to induce hypertrophy were used to investigate using GW0742 to activate PPARδ. The fluorescence assays were applied to determine the changes in cell size, cellular calcium levels, and free radicals. Western blot analyses for hypertrophic signals and assays of messenger RNA (mRNA) levels for hypertrophic biomarkers were performed. In H9c2 cells, GW0742 inhibited cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, increases in cellular calcium and hypertrophic signals, including calcineurin and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, were reduced by GW0742. This reduction was parallel to the decrease in the mRNA levels of biomarkers, such as brain/B-type natriuretic peptides and β-myosin heavy chain. These effects of GW0742 were dose-dependently inhibited by GSK0660 indicating an activation of PPARδ by GW0742 to alleviate cardiac hypertrophy. Moreover, free radicals produced by hyperglycemia were also markedly inhibited by GW0742 and were later reversed by GSK0660. GW0742 promoted the expression of thioredoxin, an antioxidant enzyme. Direct inhibition of reactive oxygen species by GW0742 was also identified in the oxidant potassium bromate stimulated H9c2 cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that PPARδ agonists can inhibit free radicals, resulting in lower cellular calcium for reduction of hypertrophic signaling to alleviate cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cells. Therefore, PPARδ activation can be used to develop agent(s) for treating cardiac hypertrophy.

Keywords: GSK0660; GW0742; H9c2 cells; cardiac hypertrophy; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blotting, Western
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Cardiomegaly / drug therapy*
  • Cardiomegaly / metabolism*
  • Cell Line
  • Free Radicals / metabolism
  • Hyperglycemia / drug therapy*
  • Hyperglycemia / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Sulfones / pharmacology
  • Thiazoles / therapeutic use*
  • Thiophenes / pharmacology


  • Free Radicals
  • GSK0660
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Sulfones
  • Thiazoles
  • Thiophenes
  • (4-(((2-(3-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-5-yl)methyl)sulfanyl)-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid
  • Calcium