Pedunculated Morphology of T1 Colorectal Tumors Associates With Reduced Risk of Adverse Outcome

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 May;17(6):1112-1120.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2018.08.041. Epub 2018 Aug 18.


Background & aims: Risk stratification for adverse events, such as metastasis to lymph nodes, is based only on histologic features of tumors. We aimed to compare adverse outcomes of pedunculated vs nonpedunculated T1 colorectal cancers (CRC).

Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 1656 patients diagnosed with T1CRC from 2000 through 2014 at 14 hospitals in The Netherlands. The median follow-up time of patients was 42.5 months (interquartile range, 18.5-77.5 mo). We evaluated the association between tumor morphology and the primary composite end point, adverse outcome, adjusted for clinical variables, histologic variables, resection margins, and treatment approach. Adverse outcome was defined as metastasis to lymph nodes, distant metastases, local recurrence, or residual tissue. Secondary end points were tumor metastasis, recurrence, and incomplete resection.

Results: Adverse outcome occurred in 67 of 723 patients (9.3%) with pedunculated T1CRCs vs 155 of 933 patients (16.6%) with nonpedunculated T1CRCs. Pedunculated morphology was independently associated with decreased risk of adverse outcome (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.59; 95% CI, 0.42-0.83; P = .003). Metastasis, incomplete resection, and recurrence were observed in 5.8%, 4.6%, and 3.9% of pedunculated T1CRCs vs 10.6%, 8.0%, and 6.6% of nonpedunculated T1CRCs, respectively. Pedunculated morphology was independently associated with a reduced risk of metastasis (adjusted OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.41-0.94; P = .03), incomplete resection (adjusted OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.36-0.91; P = .02), and recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.32-0.85; P = .009). Metastasis, incomplete resection, and recurrence did not differ significantly between low-risk pedunculated vs nonpedunculated T1CRCs (0.8% vs 2.9%, P = .38; 1.5% vs 0%, P = .99; 1.5% vs 0%; P = .99). However, incomplete resection and recurrence were significantly lower for high-risk pedunculated vs nonpedunculated T1CRCs (6.5% vs 12.5%; P = .007; 4.4% vs 8.6%; P = .03).

Conclusions: In a retrospective study of patients with T1CRC, we found pedunculated morphology to be associated independently with a decreased risk of adverse outcome in a T1CRC population at high risk of adverse outcome. Incorporating morphologic features of tumors in risk assessment could help predict outcomes of patients with T1CRC and help identify the best candidates for surgery.

Keywords: Colon Cancer; Colonoscopy; Endoscopic Mucosal Resection; Prognostic Factor.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Colonoscopy / methods*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / secondary
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology*
  • Neoplasm Staging*
  • Netherlands / epidemiology
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Assessment / methods*
  • Risk Factors
  • Survival Rate / trends
  • Time Factors