Purpose: This study investigated patterns of ischemic injury observed in brain images from patients with neonatal group B Streptococcal (GBS) meningitis.
Methods: Clinical findings and brain images from eight term or near-term newborn infants with GBS meningitis were reviewed.
Results: GBS meningitis was confirmed in all 8 infants via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, and patients tested positive for GBS in both blood and CSF cultures. Six infants (75.0%) showed early onset manifestation of the disease (<7 days); the remaining 2 (25.0%) showed late onset manifestation. In 6 infants (75%), cranial ultrasonography showed focal or diffuse echogenicity, suggesting hypoxic-ischemic injury in the basal ganglia, cerebral hemispheres, and periventricular or subcortical white matter; these findings are compatible with meningitis. Findings from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compatible with bacterial meningitis, showing prominent leptomeningeal enhancement, a widening echogenic interhemisphere, and ventricular wall thickening in all infants. Restrictive ischemic lesions observed through diffusion-weighted imaging were evident in all eight infants. Patterns of ischemic injury as detected through MRI were subdivided into 3 groups: 3 infants (37.5%) predominantly showed multiple punctuate lesions in the basal ganglia, 2 infants (25.0%) showed focal or diffuse cerebral infarcts, and 3 infants (37.5%) predominantly showed focal subcortical or periventricular white matter lesions. Four infants (50%) showed significant developmental delay or cerebral palsy.
Conclusion: Certain patterns of ischemic injury are commonly recognized in brain images from patients with neonatal GBS meningitis, and this ischemic complication may modify disease processes and contribute to poor neurologic outcomes.
Keywords: Brain ischemia; Magnetic resonance imaging; Meningitis; Streptococcus agalactiae; Neonate.