Augmented CD4 + T-cell and humoral responses after repeated annual influenza vaccination with the same vaccine component A/H1N1pdm09 over 5 years

NPJ Vaccines. 2018 Aug 14;3:37. doi: 10.1038/s41541-018-0069-1. eCollection 2018.

Abstract

Annual seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for high-risk populations and often occupational groups such as healthcare workers (HCWs). Repeated annual vaccination has been reported to either have no impact or reduce antibody responses or protection. However, whether repeated vaccination influences T-cell responses has not been sufficiently studied, despite the increasing evidence of the protective roles of T-cell immunity. Here, we explored the impact of repeated annual vaccination with the same vaccine strain (H1N1pdm09) over multiple seasons in the post-2009 pandemic era and showed that repeated vaccination increased both T-cell and humoral responses. Using the T-cell FluroSpot and intracellular cytokine-staining, the hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and the memory B-cell (MBC) ELISpot assays, we investigated pre- and postvaccination T cells, antibodies, and MBCs in a cohort of HCWs repeatedly vaccinated with H1N1pdm09 for 5 years (pandemic vaccination in 2009 and subsequently annual seasonal vaccination containing H1N1pdm09 during 2010-2013). We found that the prevaccination H1N1pdm09-specific T cells, antibodies, and MBCs were significantly increased after 3-4 repeated vaccinations and maintained at high levels throughout seasons 2012 and 2013. The cross-reactive IFN-γ-secreting CD4+ cells recognizing conserved viral external or internal epitopes were also maintained throughout 2012 and 2013. Repeated vaccination improved the multifunctional memory CD4+ responses. Particularly, the IFN-γ+TNF-α+CD4+ T cells were boosted following each vaccination. HI antibodies were significantly induced after each vaccination over 5 years. Our findings indicate a broad impact of repeated annual vaccination, even with the same vaccine component, on the influenza-specific T-cell and humoral immunity and support the continuing recommendation of annual influenza vaccination. Despite the widespread implementation of annual influenza vaccination, the effect of repeated vaccinations on the immune response in subsequent seasons is poorly understood. A team led by Rebecca Jane Cox at the University of Bergen examined the humoral and T-cell response elicited by 2009's H1N1pdm09 seasonal vaccine. Since the H1N1pdm09 strain continued to circulate in subsequent years it was included in later vaccine formulations and the authors could therefore examine the effects of repeated annual vaccination over multiple seasons. They observed that H1N1pdm09-specific polyfunctional T-cell responses and antibodies were enhanced by multiple annual vaccinations. In particular, T cells showed progressive skewing to IFN-γ+TNF+ double producers, but the magnitude of the T-cell response tended to plateau after 3-4 repeated vaccinations. The findings suggest that including the same component in subsequent annual vaccines can significantly impact the influenza immune response.