European position paper on drug-induced sleep endoscopy: 2017 Update

Clin Otolaryngol. 2018 Dec;43(6):1541-1552. doi: 10.1111/coa.13213. Epub 2018 Sep 30.


Background: The first edition of the European position paper (EPP) on drug-induced sleep endoscopy (DISE) was published in 2014 with the aim to standardise the procedure, to provide an in-depth insight into the main aspects of this technique and to have a basis for future research. Since 2014, new studies have been published concerning new sedative agents or new insights into the pattern/levels of the obstruction depending on the depth of sedation. Therefore, an enlarged group of European experts in the field of sleep breathing disorders (SBD), including the most of the first DISE EPP main authors, has decided to publish an update of the European position paper on DISE, in order to include new evidence and to find a common language useful for reporting the findings of this endoscopic evaluation in adult population affected by SBD.

Methods: The authors have evaluated all the available evidence reported in the literature and have compared experience among various departments in leading European centres in order to provide an update regarding the standardisation of the DISE procedure and an in-depth insight into the main aspects of this technique.

Results: After the first European Position Consensus Meeting on DISE and its update, consensus was confirmed for indications, required preliminary examinations, where to perform DISE, technical equipment required, staffing, local anaesthesia, nasal decongestion, other medications, patient positioning, basics and special diagnostic manoeuvres, drugs and observation windows. So far, no consensus could be reached on a scoring and classification system. However, regarding this aim, the idea of an essential classification, such as VOTE with the possibility of its graded implementation of information and descriptions, seems to be the best way to reach a universal consensus on DISE classification at this stage. A common DISE language is mandatory, and attempts to come to a generally accepted system should be pursued.

Keywords: VOTE classification; obstructive sleep apnoea; scoring and classification systems; sleep breathing disorders; sleep endoscopy; therapy; upper airway collapse.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Conscious Sedation / methods*
  • Consensus*
  • Endoscopy / methods*
  • Europe
  • Humans
  • Hypnotics and Sedatives / administration & dosage*
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / methods*
  • Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases / surgery*
  • Sleep / drug effects*


  • Hypnotics and Sedatives