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Review
. 2018 Sep;33(9):520-531.
doi: 10.1111/jocs.13789. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

The Current Status of Stem Cell Therapy in Ischemic Heart Disease

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Review

The Current Status of Stem Cell Therapy in Ischemic Heart Disease

Robert E Michler. J Card Surg. .

Abstract

The last decade has witnessed the publication of a number of stem cell clinical trials, primarily using bone marrow-derived cells as the injected cell. Much has been learned through these "first-generation" clinical trials. The advances in our understanding include (1) cell therapy is safe; (2) cell therapy has been mildly effective; and (3) human bone marrow-derived stem cells do not transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes or new blood vessels. The primary mechanism of action for cell therapy is now believed to be through paracrine effects that include the release of cytokines; chemokines; and growth factors that inhibit apoptosis and fibrosis, enhance contractility, and activate regenerative mechanisms through endogenous circulating or site-specific stem cells. The current direction for clinical trials includes the use of stem cells capable of cardiac lineage.

Keywords: bone marrow mononuclear cells; cardiac stem cells; endothelial progenitor cells; heart failure; ischemia; myocardial infarction; ventricular remodeling.

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