Background: AIDS Clinical Trial Group 5199 compared neurological and neuropsychological test performance of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected participants in resource-limited settings treated with 3 World Health Organization-recommended antiretroviral (ART) regimens. We investigated the impact of tuberculosis (TB) on neurological and neuropsychological outcomes.
Methods: Standardized neurological and neuropsychological examinations were administered every 24 weeks. Generalized estimating equation models assessed the association between TB and neurological/neuropsychological performance.
Results: Characteristics of the 860 participants at baseline were as follows: 53% female, 49% African; median age, 34 years; CD4 count, 173 cells/μL; and plasma HIV-1 RNA, 5.0 log copies/mL. At baseline, there were 36 cases of pulmonary, 9 cases of extrapulmonary, and 1 case of central nervous system (CNS) TB. Over the 192 weeks of follow-up, there were 55 observations of pulmonary TB in 52 persons, 26 observations of extrapulmonary TB in 25 persons, and 3 observations of CNS TB in 2 persons. Prevalence of TB decreased with ART initiation and follow-up. Those with TB coinfection had significantly poorer performance on grooved pegboard (P < .001) and fingertapping nondominant hand (P < .01). TB was associated with diffuse CNS disease (P < .05). Furthermore, those with TB had 9.27 times (P < .001) higher odds of reporting decreased quality of life, and had 8.02 times (P = .0005) higher odds of loss of productivity.
Conclusions: TB coinfection was associated with poorer neuropsychological functioning, particularly the fine motor skills, and had a substantial impact on functional ability and quality of life.
Clinical trials registration: NCT00096824.
Keywords: HIV; cognitive impairment; neuropsychological functioning; resource-limited; tuberculosis.
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