Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection causing inflammation of the kidneys and is one of the most common diseases of the kidney. Pyelonephritis occurs as a complication of an ascending urinary tract infection (UTI) which spreads from the bladder to the kidneys and their collecting systems. Symptoms usually include fever, flank pain, nausea, vomiting, burning on urination, increased frequency, and urgency. The 2 most common symptoms are usually fever and flank pain. Acute pyelonephritis can be divided into uncomplicated and complicated. Complicated pyelonephritis includes pregnant patients, patients with uncontrolled diabetes, kidney transplants, urinary anatomical abnormalities, acute or chronic kidney failure, as well as immunocompromised patients, and those with hospital-acquired bacterial infections. It is important to make a distinction between complicated and uncomplicated pyelonephritis, as patient management and disposition depend on it.
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