Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common brain tumor; however, no effective treatment for it is available yet. Monocarboxylate transporters, which are highly expressed in GBM, play a role in transporting antitumor agents, such as 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA). Valproate, primarily used to treat epilepsy, has been considered a possible treatment option for malignant GBM. In this study, we aimed to investigate the combined effects of 3-BrPA and valproate on GBM cell growth and elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Valproate enhanced 3-BrPA-induced cell death in T98G cells, used as a GBM model. Multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) mRNA levels significantly increased after valproate treatment. 3-BrPA-induced cell death, which was enhanced by valproate, was inhibited in the presence of MK571, a MRP inhibitor, or Ko143, a BCRP inhibitor. In addition, treatment with 3-BrPA and valproate for 48 h reduced cellular ATP levels compared to those in the 3-BrPA alone treatment group. However, cellular ATP levels were recovered in the presence of MK571 or Ko143, compared to those in the 3-BrPA and valproate treatment groups. In conclusion, we suggested that valproate enhanced 3-BrPA-induced cell death. This might be attributable to the increase in cellular ATP consumption owing to valproate-induced MRP2 or BCRP expression.
Keywords: 3-Bromopyruvate; ATP-binding cassette transporter; Glioblastoma; Monocarboxylate transporter; Valproate.
Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.