Radioenhancement of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) has shown great potential for increasing the therapeutic efficiency of radiotherapy. Here we report on a computational model of radiation response, which was developed to predict the survival curves of breast cancer cells incubated with GNPs. The amount of GNP uptake was estimated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy, and the three-dimensional (3D) intracellular distribution of GNPs was obtained using optical diffraction tomography. The developed computational model utilized the 3D live cell imaging and recent Monte Carlo techniques to calculate microscopic dose distributions within the cell. Clonogenic assays with and without GNPs were performed to estimate the radioenhancement for 150 kVp X rays in terms of cell survival fractions. Measured cell survival fractions were comparable with the computational model.