Adequacy of Usual Intake of Japanese Children Aged 3⁻5 Years: A Nationwide Study

Nutrients. 2018 Aug 23;10(9):1150. doi: 10.3390/nu10091150.


We assessed the adequacy of nutrient intakes of Japanese children aged 3⁻5 years. Dietary information was collected using a 3-nonconsective-day weighed dietary record among 143 boys and 143 girls. Estimates of usual nutrient intakes from foods and beverages were obtained using the best-power method. The proportions of children with intakes below and above the Japanese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) were estimated. The estimated usual intakes of boys and girls were adequate for most nutrients, given the low proportion (≤2%) of children consuming diets that fell below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or the mean usual intakes higher than the Adequate Intake. However, a high percentage of boys and girls had usual intakes below the EAR for calcium (64% and 54%, respectively), vitamin A (20% and 11%, respectively), thiamin (15% and 41%, respectively), and iron (27% and 10%, respectively). Additionally, 62% of boys and 66% of girls had diets that exceeded the recommended range for total fat (20%⁻30% energy). Further, 92% for boys and 85% for girls consumed diets that exceeded the recommended limit for sodium (4.0 and 4.5 g NaCl equivalent/day, respectively). In conclusion, the estimated usual intakes were adequate for most nutrients in this sample of 3⁻5-year-old Japanese children.

Keywords: children; nutrient adequacy; recommended intakes; usual nutrient intake.

MeSH terms

  • Asian Continental Ancestry Group
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet Records
  • Diet*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Male
  • Micronutrients / administration & dosage
  • Nutrition Assessment
  • Nutrition Policy
  • Nutritional Requirements*


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Micronutrients