Cancer immunotherapy can induce durable antitumor responses. However, many patients poorly respond to such therapies. Here we describe a generic antitumor therapy that is based on the intratumor delivery of mRNA that codes for the necroptosis executioner mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) protein. This intervention stalls primary tumor growth and protects against distal and disseminated tumor formation in syngeneic mouse melanoma and colon carcinoma models. Moreover, MLKL-mRNA treatment combined with immune checkpoint blockade further improves the antitumor activity. MLKL-mRNA treatment rapidly induces T cell responses directed against tumor neo-antigens and requires CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to prevent tumor growth. Type I interferon signaling and Batf3-dependent dendritic cells are essential for this mRNA treatment to elicit tumor antigen-specific T cell responses. Moreover, MLKL-mRNA treatment blunts the growth of human lymphoma in mice with a reconstituted human adaptive immune system. MLKL-based treatment can thus be exploited as an effective antitumor immunotherapy.