Prognostic factors for visual loss following proton irradiation of uveal melanoma were evaluated for 440 eyes treated from 1975 to 1984, with visual acuity 20/200 or better before treatment. Analysis involved Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox proportional hazards analysis with visual outcome defined as worse than 20/200. Prognostic factors were tumor height: rate ratio (ratio of rate of visual loss for one category of the variable relative to the rate of visual loss for a reference category of that variable) of 5.26 (95% confidence interval, 2.66-10.39) for tumors greater than 5 mm compared to tumors 3.0 mm or less in height; distance of tumor from the optic disc and fovea: rate ratio 2.59 (1.63-4.11) for tumors 2DD or less from both the optic disc and fovea compared to those greater than 2 DD from these structures. Also predictive of visual loss were tumor location close to disc only, or close to fovea only, macular detachment, worse pretreatment vision, and higher radiation doses delivered to both the disc and fovea, and lens. Regression analysis using a visual acuity scale gave similar results.