Purpose: Texture analysis (TA) can quantify variations in surface intensity or patterns, including some that are imperceptible to the human visual system. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of radiomic based filtration-histogram TA to differentiate high-grade from low-grade gliomas by assessing tumor heterogeneity.
Methods: Patients with a histopathological diagnosis of glioma and preoperative 3T MRI imaging were included in this retrospective study. A region of interest was manually delineated on post-contrast T1 images. TA was performed using commercially available research software. The histogram parameters including mean, standard deviation, entropy, mean of the positive pixels, skewness, and kurtosis were analyzed at spatial scaling factors ranging from 0 to 6 mm. The parameters were correlated with WHO glioma grade using Spearman correlation. Areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated using ROC curve analysis to distinguish tumor grades.
Results: Of a total of 94 patients, 14 had low-grade gliomas and 80 had high-grade gliomas. Mean, SD, MPP, entropy and kurtosis each showed significant differences between glioma grades for different spatial scaling filters. Low and high-grade gliomas were best-discriminated using mean of 2 mm fine texture scale, with a sensitivity and specificity of 93% and 86% (AUC of 0.90).
Conclusions: Quantitative measurement of heterogeneity using TA can discriminate high versus low-grade gliomas. Radiomic data of texture features can provide complementary diagnostic information for gliomas.
Keywords: Glioma; MRI; Radiomics; Texture analysis.