In-Vial Extraction Large Volume Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Volatile PFASs on Papers and Textiles

Environ Sci Technol. 2018 Sep 18;52(18):10609-10616. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.8b04304. Epub 2018 Sep 10.


Volatile per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFASs) are found in consumer goods that contribute to human exposure to PFASs. Volatile PFAS precursors transform to perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) and sulfonates (PFSAs) in both humans and the environment. Established methods for volatile PFASs in consumer goods exist, but higher sample throughput and greener sample preparation methods are needed to minimize analyte loss, while maintaining sensitivity. New analytical methodology was developed where a 1.5 × 1.5 cm piece of paper or textile is placed into an autosampler vial with solvent and mass-labeled internal standards, sonicated for 30 min, and directly injected without removal of material from the autosampler vial. Large volume injection (20 μL) gas chromatography mass spectrometry was applied for the quantification for 21 individual PFASs from five classes: fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorinated sulfonamides (N-MeFASA, N-EtFASA), and fluorinated sulfonamidoethanols (N-MeFASE, N-EtFASE). Nontargeted analysis revealed additional C2-C7 homologues of N-MeFASE and N-EtFASE, which accounted for 14-18% of the total volatile PFASs on three textiles. Overlooking short-chain (≤C7) N-MeFASE, N-EtFASE, and long-chained (10:2-14:2) FTOHs on older textiles from the 1980s leads to an underestimation of human and environmental exposure to volatile PFAS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Carboxylic Acids
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Fluorocarbons*
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Humans
  • Textiles


  • Carboxylic Acids
  • Fluorocarbons