Reconstituting Nuclear and Chromosome Dynamics Using Xenopus Extracts

Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2019 Mar 1;2019(3):pdb.top097105. doi: 10.1101/pdb.top097105.


Extracts prepared from the eggs of frogs, particularly Xenopus species, have provided critical material for seminal studies of nuclear and chromosome dynamics over several decades. Their usefulness for these types of analyses lies in several important characteristics: stockpiled nuclear components, absence of endogenous DNA, and intact and functioning signaling networks. These factors have allowed detailed molecular analyses of many aspects of chromosome biology, including DNA replication, checkpoint signaling, epigenetic control, and chromosome condensation, cohesion, and segregation. In this introduction, the preparation and application of Xenopus egg extracts for the study of chromosomes and chromatin are described in detail.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Cycle
  • Cell Nucleus / chemistry
  • Chromatin / chemistry
  • Chromosomes*
  • Ovum / chemistry*
  • Xenopus


  • Chromatin