Cardiovascular disease is the prevalent cause of morbidity and mortality in the world, affecting many millions of individuals every year. Atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory condition that involves different cell types, several cytokines and adhesion molecules, is the underlying cause of cardiovascular disease. Vitamin D is known to control skeletal patho/physiology, regulating calcium and phosphorus and bone remodeling along with other calcium-regulating hormones. However, several active metabolites of vitamin D can exert both direct action, mainly via vitamin D3 receptor trans-activation and indirect actions on several other tissues by an endocrine, autocrine and paracrine manners. With regard to cardiovascular disease, vitamin D deficiency has been associated with activation of the pro-inflammatory mechanism, promoting atherogenesis. There are several large-scale clinical studies, as well as meta-analyses that support this finding. However, it is still unclear whether the plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D level can be used as a biomarker for future cardiovascular disease. Herein we review the studies reporting a causative role for vitamin D in cardiovascular disease.
Keywords: Atherosclerosis; cardiovascular disease; matrix metalloproteinases; review; vitamin D; vitamin D receptor.
Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.