Renal fibrosis is the final common pathway of numerous progressive kidney diseases, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) has an important role in tissue fibrosis by up-regulating matrix protein synthesis, inhibiting matrix degradation, and altering cell-cell interaction. Many strategies targeting TGF-β, including inhibition of production, activation, binding to the receptor, and intracellular signaling, have been developed. Some of them were examined in clinical studies against kidney fibrosis, and some are applied to other fibrotic diseases or cancer. Here, I review the approaches targeting TGF-β signaling in kidney fibrosis.
Keywords: antisense; galunisertib; gene therapy; glomerulosclerosis; interstitial fibrosis; ligand trap; pirfenidone; siRNA.