An efficient B cell immunity requires a dynamic equilibrium between positive and negative signals. In germinal centers (GCs), T follicular helper cells are supposed to be the positive regulator while T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells were assigned to be the negative regulators. Indeed, Tfr cells are considered as a homogenous cell population dedicated to dampen the GC extent. Moreover, Tfr cells prevent autoimmunity since their dysregulation leads to production of self-reactive antibodies (Ab). However, a growing corpus of evidence has revealed additional and unexpected functions for Tfr cells in the regulation of B cell responses. This review provides an overview of the Tfr cell contribution and presents Tfr cell proprieties in the context of vaccination.
Keywords: T follicular helper cells; T follicular regulatory cells; germinal centers; heterogeneity; subsets.