Diabetes Device Use and Glycemic Control among Youth with Type 1 Diabetes: A Single-Center, Cross-Sectional Study

J Diabetes Res. 2018 Jul 29:2018:5162162. doi: 10.1155/2018/5162162. eCollection 2018.


Aim: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine the rates of diabetes device use (insulin pump and continuous glucose monitor (CGM)) and association with glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes in a large, diverse pediatric center.

Methods: Demographic and clinical data were obtained from 1992 patients who met the eligibility criteria (age < 26 years, diabetes duration ≥ 1 year, and ≥1 clinic visit in the preceding 12 months). Statistical analyses assessed the likelihood of device use based on demographic characteristics and the association between device use and glycemic control based on most recent hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c).

Results: Mean age was 13.8 ± 4.2 years, 50.7% were female, diabetes duration was 6.2 ± 4 years, and mean HbA1c was 8.7 ± 1.8%. Overall, 38.2% of patients were on pump therapy and 18.5% were on CGM. Patients who were non-Hispanic (NH) white, privately insured, and with primary English-speaking parent(s) had higher rates of insulin pump use, as well as CGM use (P < 0.001 for both). Female patients had higher rates of pump use only (P < 0.01). Private health insurance, NH white race/ethnicity, and CGM use were each associated with lower HbA1c (P = 0.03, <0.001, and <0.008, resp.).

Conclusion: At a large, diverse, pediatric diabetes center, disparities in diabetes device use were present across sex, race/ethnicity, health insurance coverage, and primary language of parent(s). CGM use was associated with lower HbA1c. Quality improvement efforts are underway to ensure improved access, education, and clinical programs for advanced diabetes devices for T1D patients.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects*
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / instrumentation*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin Infusion Systems*
  • Male
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Texas
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin
  • hemoglobin A1c protein, human