Measuring Influenza Virus Infection Using Bioluminescent Reporter Viruses for In Vivo Imaging and In Vitro Replication Assays

Methods Mol Biol. 2018;1836:431-459. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-8678-1_21.


To streamline standard virological assays, we developed bioluminescent replication-competent influenza reporter viruses that mimic their parental counterparts. These reporter viruses provide a rapid and quantitative readout of viral infection and replication. Moreover, they permit real-time in vivo measures of viral load, tissue distribution, and transmission in the same cohort of animals over the entire course of infection-measurements that were not previously possible. Here we provide detailed protocols using bioluminescent reporter viruses for in vivo imaging in mice and ferrets. We also describe cell culture-based techniques using reporter viruses for quantification of viral titers and performing microneutralization assays. The ease, speed, and adaptability of these approaches have the potential to accelerate multiple areas of influenza virus research.

Keywords: Bioluminescence; In vivo bioluminescence imaging; Influenza virus; Microneutralization assay; Nano-Glo; NanoLuc; Reporter virus; TCID50; Virus titration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Line
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Ferrets
  • Genes, Reporter*
  • Humans
  • Luminescent Measurements* / methods
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Neutralization Tests
  • Orthomyxoviridae / physiology*
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / diagnosis*
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / virology*
  • Viral Load
  • Virus Replication*