Exposure of Endothelium to Biomimetic Flow Waveforms Yields Identification of miR-199a-5p as a Potent Regulator of Arteriogenesis

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2018 Sep 7;12:829-844. doi: 10.1016/j.omtn.2018.08.001. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

Abstract

Arteriogenesis, the growth of endogenous collateral arteries bypassing arterial occlusion(s), is a fundamental shear stress-induced adaptation with implications for treating peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Nonetheless, endothelial mechano-signaling during arteriogenesis is incompletely understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that a mechanosensitive microRNA, miR-199a-5p, regulates perfusion recovery and collateral arteriogenesis following femoral arterial ligation (FAL) via control of monocyte recruitment and pro-arteriogenic gene expression. We have previously shown that collateral artery segments exhibit distinctly amplified arteriogenesis if they are exposed to reversed flow following FAL in the mouse. We performed a genome-wide analysis of endothelial cells exposed to a biomimetic reversed flow waveform. From this analysis, we identified mechanosensitive miR-199a-5p as a novel candidate regulator of collateral arteriogenesis. In vitro, miR-199a-5p inhibited pro-arteriogenic gene expression (IKKβ, Cav1) and monocyte adhesion to endothelium. In vivo, following FAL in mice, miR-199a-5p overexpression impaired foot perfusion and arteriogenesis. In contrast, a single intramuscular anti-miR-199a-5p injection elicited a robust therapeutic response, including complete foot perfusion recovery, markedly augmented arteriogenesis (>3.4-fold increase in segment conductance), and improved gastrocnemius tissue composition. Finally, we found plasma miR-199a-5p to be elevated in human PAD patients with intermittent claudication compared to a risk factor control population. Through our transformative analysis of endothelial mechano-signaling in response to a biomimetic amplified arteriogenesis flow waveform, we have identified miR-199a-5p as both a potent regulator of arteriogenesis and a putative target for treating PAD.

Keywords: endothelial; femoral arterial ligation; hindlimb ischemia; miR-199a-5p; microRNA; peripheral arterial disease; shear stress.