Objectives: Bioavailability of supplements with coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in humans seems to depend on the excipients of formulations and on physiological characteristics of the individuals. The aim of this study was to determine which factors presented in CoQ10 supplements affect the different response to CoQ10 in humans.
Methods: We tested seven different supplement formulations containing 100 mg of CoQ10 in 14 young, healthy individuals. Bioavailability was measured as area under the curve of plasma CoQ10 levels over 48 h after ingestion of a single dose. Measurements were repeated in the same group of 14 volunteers in a double-blind crossover design with a minimum of 4 wk washout between intakes.
Results: Bioavailability of the formulations showed large differences that were statistically significant. The two best absorbable formulations were soft-gel capsules containing ubiquinone (oxidized CoQ10) or ubiquinol (reduced CoQ10). The matrix used to dissolve CoQ10 and the proportion and addition of preservatives such as vitamin C affected the bioavailability of CoQ10. Although control measurements documented that all formulations contained 100 mg of either CoQ10 or ubiquinol, some of the participants showed high and others lower capacity to reach high increase of CoQ10 in blood, indicating the participation of individual unknown physiological factors.
Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of individually adapted selection of best formulations to reach the highest bioavailability of CoQ10 in humans.
Keywords: Bioavailability; Coenzyme Q10; Human; Ubiquinol; Ubiquinone.
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