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. 2018 Aug 28;23(9):2166.
doi: 10.3390/molecules23092166.

Ultra-Fast Degradation of p-Aminophenol by a Nanostructured Iron Catalyst

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Free PMC article

Ultra-Fast Degradation of p-Aminophenol by a Nanostructured Iron Catalyst

Rocio Benavente et al. Molecules. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Full degradation of p-aminophenol in aqueous solution at room temperature by using a heterogeneous nanostructured iron hybrid catalyst in the presence of hydrogen peroxide is described. A nanostructured iron catalyst was prepared by in situ formation of iron carbonate nanorods on the protein network using an aqueous solution of an enzyme, lipase B from Candida antarctica (CAL-B). A second kind of iron nanostructured catalyst was obtained by the sunsequent treatment of the hybrid with an aqueous liquid extract of Mentha x piperita. Remarkable differences were observed using TEM imaging. When M. piperita extract was used, nanoparticles appeared instead of nanorods. Catalytic activity of these iron nanocatalysts was studied in the degradation of the environmental pollutant p-aminophenol (pAP) under different operating parameters, such as pH, presence of buffer or hydrogen peroxide concentration. Optimal conditions were pH 4 in acetate buffer 10 mM containing 1% (v/v) H₂O₂ for FeCO₃NRs@CALB, while for FeCO₃NRs@CALB-Mentha, water containing 1% (v/v) H₂O₂, resulted the best. A complete degradation of 100 ppm of pAP was achieved in 2 and 3 min respectively using 1 g Fe/L. This novel nanocatalyst was recycled five times maintaining full catalytic performance.

Keywords: 4-aminophenol; Mentha x piperita; environmental remediation; iron nanocatalyst.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Biosynthesis of the iron carbonate nanorods, FeCO3NRs@CALB composites.
Figure 2
Figure 2
X-ray characterization of bionanohybrid. (a) XRD pattern (● FeCO3, * iron oxide impurity.). (b) XPS spectrum. (c) XPS Fe2p spectrum.
Figure 3
Figure 3
TEM analysis of FeCO3NRs@CALB. (a,b) TEM. (c) HRTEM.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Characterization of FeCO3NRs@CALB-Mentha. (a) XRD. (b) TEM. (c) HRTEM. (d) HRTEM (inset IFFT).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Characterization of FeCO3NRs@CALB after 30 days. (a) XRD pattern nanocomposite. (b) TEM images of the nanocomposite. (c) Comparison of nanorods size of the nanocomposite at day 1 and day 30 after synthesis.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Profile of pAP degradation in acetate buffer at pH 4 containing different amount of H2O2 catalyzed by FeCO3NRs@CALB.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Profile of pAP degradation in water containing 1% (v/v) of H2O2 catalyzed by bionanohybrids. (a) Comparison between FeCO3NRs@CALB (red line) and FeCO3NPs@CALB-Mentha (blue line) at 2 mL reaction volume. (b) FeCO3NPs@CALB-Mentha at 10 mL reaction volume. The amount of catalyst was 3 mg in all cases.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Effect of the amount of hydrogen peroxide in the pAP degradation catalyzed by hydrogen peroxide. Reaction conditions were 3 mg catalyst, 10 mL of pAP solution in distilled water (100 mg/L), room temperature for 15 min.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Reuse of FeCO3NPs@CALB-Mentha in the degradation of pAP. Reaction conditions were: 3 mg catalyst, 2 mL of pAP solution in distilled water (100 mg/L), room temperature for 3 min.

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