Cytokine profiles in the aqueous humor and serum of patients with dry and treated wet age-related macular degeneration

PLoS One. 2018 Aug 29;13(8):e0203337. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203337. eCollection 2018.


Purpose: To identify disease-specific cytokine profile differences in the aqueous humor (AH) (other than the vascular endothelial growth factor) between patients with dry and treated wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and healthy controls.

Methods: This retrospective study drew on a case-series of patients diagnosed with dry AMD (n = 25) and treated wet AMD (n = 19), as well as on healthy controls (no systemic therapy; n = 20) undergoing phacoemulsification or vitrectomy. Samples of AH and serum were collected in parallel at the beginning of surgery. The levels of 43 cytokines were simultaneously determined using the Bio-Plex® multiplex beads system. Differences between the three groups were statistically compared using the Kruskal-Wallis H-Test after applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons (p<0.0012).

Results: The concentrations of three cytokines were elevated in the AH of patients with dry AMD (CXCL6; p = 0.00067) and treated wet AMD (CXCL5, CXCL6, MIG/XCXL; all p<0.001) relative to those in the healthy controls. No other differences between the three groups were identified. The AH levels of seven cytokines (16%), including CXCL6, ranged below the lower limit of quantitation of the assay. Without the correction for multiple comparisons (p<0.05), the levels of 31 of the 43 cytokines in the AH of patients with AMD would have differed significantly from those in the control. The systemic cytokine profiles (serum) were similar in all three groups.

Conclusions: No systematic differences in the AH cytokine environment were identified between patients with dry AMD and those with treated wet AMD. This finding might indicate that AMD is either the result of a persistent imbalance in the physiological tissue milieu, or that the localized process induces no significant change in the cytokine environment of the anterior ocular segment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aqueous Humor / metabolism*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Wet Macular Degeneration / blood*
  • Wet Macular Degeneration / metabolism*


  • Cytokines

Grants and funding

The manuscript was partially funded by a grant from the Scientific Funds of the Lindenhof Foundation without commercial interests. There was no additional external funding received for this study. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.