Discrimination of Human Urine from Animal Urine Using 1H-NMR

J Anal Toxicol. 2019 Jan 1;43(1):51-60. doi: 10.1093/jat/bky061.


Urine was most commonly used biological sample in drug test. To create a false-negative test result, some drug abusers were reported to submit animal urine instead of their own. So, the purpose of this study was to compare and differentiate human from animal urine (Rat 370, Pig 12, Horse 10, Cat 8, Dog 13, Cow 10, Monkey 10) samples through the uses of quantitative 1H-NMR and to find biomarkers that can be used for the discrimination of human urine from animal urine. The 1H-NMR spectroscopy was employed and metabolomic analysis with multivariate statistics was carried out. Human urine samples and animal urine samples showed different patterns in metabolites profile and several characteristic metabolites were identified.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Cats
  • Cattle
  • Dogs
  • Haplorhini
  • Horses
  • Humans
  • Metabolomics / methods*
  • Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy*
  • Rats
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Species Specificity
  • Sus scrofa
  • Urinalysis
  • Urine / chemistry*


  • Biomarkers