Kluyveromyces marxianus yeast enables the production of low FODMAP whole wheat breads

Food Microbiol. 2018 Dec;76:135-145. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2018.04.014. Epub 2018 May 3.


There is evidence that a diet low in Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Monosaccharides And Polyols (FODMAPs) alleviates symptoms in approx. 70% of the patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Through fructans, wheat containing products are a major source of FODMAPs in the western diet. Although fructans are partially degraded during dough fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae invertase, wheat bread contains notable fructan levels. In this study, it was shown that Kluyveromyces marxianus strain CBS6014 can degrade more than 90% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal during bread making, which can be attributed to its high inulinase activity. As K. marxianus CBS6014 was not able to consume maltose during fermentation, alternative sugars (sucrose) or glucose releasing enzymes (amyloglucosidase) had to be included in the bread making recipe to ensure sufficient production of CO2 and high bread quality. Five volatile flavor compounds were produced in significantly different levels when K. marxianus CBS6014 was used as starter culture compared with the conventional S. cerevisiae bakery strain. These differences were, however, not detected when sensory analysis of the crumb was performed. This study demonstrates the potential of inulinase-producing K. marxianus strains for the production of (whole meal) breads low in FODMAPs.

Keywords: FODMAPs; Fermentation; Inulinase; Kluyveromyces marxianus; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Wheat.

MeSH terms

  • Bread / analysis*
  • Bread / microbiology
  • Diet / adverse effects
  • Fermentation*
  • Fructans / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Irritable Bowel Syndrome / prevention & control
  • Kluyveromyces / enzymology
  • Kluyveromyces / metabolism*
  • Maltose / metabolism
  • Monosaccharides / analysis
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Sucrose / metabolism
  • Taste
  • Triticum / metabolism*
  • Triticum / microbiology*


  • Fructans
  • Monosaccharides
  • Sucrose
  • Maltose