Etiological differences among breast cancer (BC) subtypes have not been clearly established, especially among young women in Latin America. This study examined the relationship between reproductive factors and BC subtypes among 288 BC cases (20-45 years) and population-based matched controls in four Latin American countries. Immunohistochemistry was determined centrally. Associations between BC and reproductive factors were determined. Older age at first full-term pregnancy (FFTP) (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.11; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 1.04-1.19 per year), longer time between menarche and FFTP (OR = 1.12; 95%CI: 1.04-1.20 per year), and older age at last pregnancy (OR = 1.10; 95%CI, 1.02-1.19 per year) were associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) tumors (n = 122). Ever pregnant (OR = 0.35; 95%CI, 0.13-0.96), number of childbirths (OR = 0.64; 95%CI, 0.47-0.87 per child), time since last birth (OR = 0.92; 95%CI, 0.85-0.99 per year), and history of breastfeeding (OR = 0.23; 95%CI, 0.09-0.58) were inversely associated with the risk of ER+ tumor. Older age at menarche (OR = 0.63; 95%CI, 0.45-0.89 per year) and longer duration of breastfeeding (OR = 0.97; 95%CI, 0.94-1.01 per month) were inversely associated with estrogen receptor negative (ER-) tumors (n = 48). Reproductive factors may be differentially associated with BC subtypes in young Latin American women.