Incidence, trends, and associated risks of developmental hip dysplasia in patients with Early Onset and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

J Orthop. 2018 Aug 15;15(3):874-877. doi: 10.1016/j.jor.2018.08.015. eCollection 2018 Sep.


Introduction: Early Onset and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis, relatively common diagnoses (∼3% general population), have been associated with developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH); a more rare spectrum of anomalies related to the abnormal development of acetabulum, proximal femur, and hip joint. To the best of our knowledge, no high powered investigations have been performed in an attempt to assess incidence and associated risks of DDH in scoliosis patients.

Methods: The KID database was queried for ICD-9 codes from 2003 to 2012 pertaining to EOS (Congenital and Idiopathic <10y/o) and AIS patients. Descriptive analysis assessed patient demographics and yearly trends in hip dysplasia rates. EOS and AIS patients with hip dysplasia were isolated, and incidence of hospital admissions for associated anomalies (osteonecrosis, osteoarthritis, recurrent hip dislocation, hip ankylosis) and hip arthroplasty (total + partial) were investigated. Univariate analysis of hip pathology determined significant predictors of hip arthroplasty. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between these predictors.

Results: 111,827 scoliosis patients (EOS: 25,747; AIS: 77,183) were included. AIS patients were older (15.2 vs 4.3), more female (64.2% vs 52.1%), had a higher CCI (0.84 vs 0.64), and less racially diverse (all p < 0.001). The incidence of hip dysplasia was 1.4% for AIS patients and 3.9% for EOS patients (p < 0.001). Of the AIS (n = 1073) and EOS (n = 1005) patients with hip dysplasia, 0.3% (p > 0.05 between groups) developed hip osteonecrosis, 0% of patients were coded as having a hip labral tear, hip ankylosis, and 0.6% (EOS: 0.2%; AIS: 0.9%, p = 0.025) developed hip osteoarthritis. AIS patients were more likely to have recurrent hip dislocations (35.4% vs 17.0%, p < 0.001), and both groups had similar primary hip arthroplasty rates (6.7% vs 5.4%, p = 0.118) and revision hip arthroplasty rates (0% vs 0.4%, p = 0.053). Hip osteoarthritis (OR: 13.43[5.21-34.66], p=<0.001) and older age (OR: 1.039[1.007-1.073], p = 0.017) were the only significant predictors of hip arthroplasty (p=<.001).

Conclusions: The incidence of hip dysplasia in EOS and AIS populations is higher than that of the general population. The rate of DDH was 3.9% and 1.8% for EOS and AIS, respectively. While the incidence of DDH is higher, associated anomalies of osteoarthritis, osteonecrosis, labral tears, and ankylosis appear to be a minimal risk for AIS and EOS patients with Hip Dysplasia.

Keywords: Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; Degenerative dysplasia of the hip; Early onset scoliosis; Hip arthroplasty; Recurrent hip dislocations.