Non-invasive fluorescence retinal imaging in small animals is an important requirement for an array of translational vision applications. The in vivo two-photon imaging of the mouse retina may enable the long-term investigation of the structure and function of healthy and diseased retinal tissue. However, to date, this has only been possible using relatively complex adaptive-optics systems. Here, the optical modeling of the murine eye and of the imaging system is used to achieve correction-free two-photon microscopy through the pupil of a mouse eye to yield high-quality, optically sectioned fundus images. By remotely scanning the focus using an electronically tunable lens, high-resolution three-dimensional fluorescein angiograms and cellular-scale images are acquired, thus introducing a correction-free baseline performance level for two-photon in vivo retinal imaging. Moreover, the system enables functional calcium imaging of repeated retinal responses to light stimulation using the genetically encoded indicator, GCaMP6s. These results and the simplicity of the new add-on optics are an important step toward several structural, functional, and multimodal imaging applications that will benefit from the tight optical sectioning and the use of near-infrared light.
Keywords: angiography; eye model; functional calcium imaging; in vivo; optogenetics; two-photon microscopy.