Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections occur worldwide and are responsible for severe damage to the child in from one to five newborns per 20,000 births. Animal models of congenital CMV infection resulting in disease have been developed in mice and guinea pigs. We report here the development of ventricular dilatation and leptomeningitis in rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta, following intrauterine infection with rhesus cytomegalovirus (RCMV). Central nervous system (CNS) lesions were associated with low cytomegalovirus fluorescent antibody titers in affected fetuses. In several infected animals, RCMV was isolated at necropsy from neural and nonneural tissues taken shortly after birth. This model allows investigators to study the pathogenesis and prevention of CNS changes following RCMV infection.