Purpose of review: The current review is to summarize the recent progress of vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) and microbiome in intestinal homeostasis, airway function, and other organs.
Recent findings: Microbiome is considered as a newly discovered human organ. It is critical in the synthesis of vitamins and harvest of otherwise inaccessible nutrients, metabolism of xenobiotics, body fat storage, renewal of gut epithelial cells, and mature of immune system. Vitamin D and VDR are known to regulate microbiome in health and disease. We will focus on the recent findings published in 12-18 months and discuss the vitamin D supplement and its effects on microbiome, intestinal homeostasis, airway function, and metabolism. We will emphasize the tissue specificity and genetic factor of VDR and microbiome.
Summary: The findings in dietary vitamin D, VDR, and microbiome with personalized genetic information will be implicated for optimal prevention and treatment of chronic diseases.