Vitamin D deficiency in patients with aggressive periodontitis

Oral Dis. 2019 Jan;25(1):242-249. doi: 10.1111/odi.12968. Epub 2018 Oct 30.


Objectives: Vitamin D deficiency is a frequent health problem worldwide, especially as fewer people spend much time in the sun. Vitamin D deficiency is linked to several infectious and inflammatory conditions, including periodontal disease. However, its role in aggressive periodontitis (AgP) has not been well studied. We evaluated the association between vitamin D concentration and periodontal disease, both AgP and chronic (CP) periodontitis.

Method and materials: Forty-seven AgP 55 CP and 27 control subjects participated. All patients were tested for serum vitamin D concentration (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone, and serum bone-related biomarkers (alkaline phosphatases, calcium, and phosphorus) regulated by vitamin D.

Results: The patients with AgP had lower serum 25(OH)D concentration (11.22 ± 4.8 ng/ml) than controls (16.9 ± 6.4 ng/ml) and patients with CP (16.13 ± 8.3 ng/ml; overall p value 0.0002). These associations remained significant after adjustment for age and gender (p = 0.002). No significant differences were observed in any bone-related biomarker among the three groups, and no association was observed with periodontal disease indices.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that vitamin D deficiency may be a potential risk factor for AgP. Given the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in AgP patients, routine screening for vitamin D status may be advisable in these subjects.

Keywords: aggressive periodontitis; inflammatory diseases; risk factor; vitamin D deficiency.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aggressive Periodontitis / complications*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chronic Periodontitis / complications*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Periodontal Index
  • Risk Factors
  • Vitamin D / blood
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / complications*
  • Young Adult


  • Biomarkers
  • Vitamin D